(Не)совершенная случайность. Как случай управляет нашей жизнью - Млодинов Леонард

The story is recounted in Bill Braun, Lawyers Seek to Overturn Rape Conviction, Tulsa World, November 22, 1996. See alsowww.innocenceproject.org. (Durham was released in 1997.)




51


People v. Collins, 68 Calif. 2d 319, 438 P.2d 33, 66 Cal. Rptr. 497 (1968).




52


Thomas Lyon, private communication.




53


Alan Wykes, Doctor Cardano: Physician Extraordinary (London: Frederick Muller, 1969). See also Oystein Ore, Cardano: The Gambling Scholar, with a translation of Cardanos Book on Games of Chance by Sydney Henry Gould (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1953)




54


Marilyn vos Savant, Ask Marilyn, Parade, September 9, 1990.




55


.




56


Bruce D. Burns and Mareike Wieth, Causality and Reasoning: The Monty Hall Dilemma, in Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, ed. R. Alterman and D. Kirsh (Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003), p. 198.




57


National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators2002 (Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation, 2002); http://www. nsf.gov/statistics/seind02/. See vol. 2, chap. 7, table 7-10.




58


Gary P. Posner, Nations Mathematicians Guilty of Innumeracy, Skeptical Inquirer 15, no. 4 (Summer 1991).




59


Bruce Schechter, My Brain Is Open: The Mathematical Journeys of Paul Erd?s (New York: Touchstone, 1998), pp. 1079.




60


Bruce Schechter, My Brain Is Open: The Mathematical Journeys of Paul Erd?s (New York: Touchstone, 1998), pp. 18990, 196-97.




61


John Tierney, Behind Montys Doors: Puzzle, Debate and Answer? New York Times, July 21, 1991.




62


Robert S. Gottfried, The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New York: Free Press, 1985).




63


Gerolamo Cardano, quoted in Wykes, Doctor Cardano, p. 18.




64


Kline, Mathematical Thought, pp. 18485, 25960.




65


, 1956. , .




66


Oprahs New Shape: How She Got It, O, the Oprah Magazine, January 2003.




67


Lorraine J. Daston, Classical Probability in the Enlightenment (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998), p. 97.




68


Marilyn vos Savant, Ask Marilyn, Parade, March 3, 1996, p. 14.




69


, , , 16 . 1, 2, : (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ). 16 4 : (, ), (, ), (, ), (, ). , 4 16, 1 4.




70


, .




71


Martin Gardner, Mathematical Games, Scientific American, October 1959, pp. 18082.




72


Jerome Cardan, The Book of My Life: De Vita Propia Liber, trans. Jean Stoner (Whitefish, Mont.: Kessinger, 2004), p. 35.




73


Cardano, quoted in Wykes, Doctor Cardano, p. 57.




74


Cardano, quoted ibid.




75


Cardano, quoted ibid., p. 172.